BLOG: To Become Visible

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  • Bullets, Stupidity, Beauty

    For untold centuries this muted earth-red boulder, sloughed off the basalt rim above, displayed a complex array of archaic petroglyphs.  The winds, dust, rain, and snow of the Summer Lake basin patinaed this roughly textured stone and its carvings. White explorers and settlers for nearly 200 years left it untouched, in peace.  Recently intentionally shot with a gun, four times, the surface now marked with bright gray bullet pits.  This complex place and its boulder now become witnesses and bearers of stupidity and arrogance.  In addition to offering its deep beauty. 

    Two Before-After sets below. (Photos Douglas Beauchamp 2010-2012 & 2016)  

  • Beyond Parts and Wholes

    The whole is something else than the sum of the parts, because summing is a meaningless procedure, whereas the whole-part relationship is meaningful.
    Kurt Koffka, in Principles of Gestalt Psychology (1935)

    One of the three founders of modern Gestalt psychology, Koffka penned this to counter the misattribution of the common precept “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts” to him, Max Wertheimer, and Wolfgang Kohler.

    Why offer a fine-grained distinction in perceptual theory? To openly consider perception of configurations of marks on stone, I will assert. To encourage us to look beyond framing, beyond glyphs as elements, beyond summing, beyond the limits of our known world. We may then see-into relationships and allow this perceiving to constitute more-than parts, more-than whole. Or, as Philip Rawson suggests, seeing hidden in traces the gestalten of our universe as spatio-temporal rhythms. This whole will always be contingent, offering glimpses of a fleeting unitary beyond our moment within a multiplicity of appearances. The materiality of stone assures, as does weathering, and sensed duration.

    This gathering of photo-images of petroglyphs on a basalt rim in SE Oregon’s Owyhee country are part of a whole ever beyond containment. I rest, appreciating glimpses into the distances and depths.

  • Art. and Not. and Art again.

    Great art has the “ability to simultaneously command attention and confound interpretation.  Work like this draws us in but ultimately frustrates our attempt to reduce the experience to anything like a definitive reading. We might call it Zeno’s paradox of meaning: The closer we get, the more numerous and splintered our frames of reference become.” Jordan Kantor, writing about Jackson Pollock, Artforum, March 2016

    The Art in Rock Art has been and will continue to be an object of subjective debate. Pointedly, is “it” Art ? Or Not? Or something else?  If you are already feeling the déjà vu of circularity, then you know how these discussions usually proceed.  You may wonder, Well?

    I attempt to see the thingness, the raw materiality of the stone, the carved-away, the pigment, in various ways - as figure or field, as time or place, as mind or heart.  Certainly my seeing and imaging is very different from the intent, action, and gaze of the creator-maker –  the artist, if you will. Art. I do see and experience some rock art as Art.  Some as Artifact. Some as mysterious, or ambiguous, or even random, lines and shapes.  I often feel beauty in the relationship of the weathering markings to the aging, stained and patinaed stone, to the lights and shadows, the lichens and mosses.  

    The materiality of a petroglyph or a rock painting is exactly what it is. It simply is. How it appears visually will alter over time or with varying light and weather.  Significantly, how it appears derives from the beholder’s imaginings. The image results from our beholding, culturally and personally engendered.  Each of us brings a discrete frame of reference as we discover, look, and gaze. Move closer, embodied, and drift further away.  As we frame – literally, as we decide where “it” ends and begins – we may recognize how arbitrary what we think we know and what we expect limits and constrains the elusive truth of the image. 

    Here's the crux: how I see and label in no way affects the original.  It is free and so am I with respect for its inherent integrity and right to be. I will not touch it, I may photograph it (a reductive framing), I will go on my way often moved by what I’ve seen, that is, imagined.  Later I may study and meditate on the visual image, with research, share my photo and thoughts with others.  I may call it Art.

    Regardless, as Robinson Jeffers observes in his early 20th c. poem Credo:
           The mind
    Passes, the eye closes, the spirit is a passage;
    The beauty of things was born before eyes
       and sufficient to itself; the heart-breaking beauty
    Will remain when there is no heart to break for it.

  • Future Views Now: Petroglyphs, Golf, 3D immersion

    Property and Ideoscape.  Landscape and Taskscape.  Mother Earth.  Investigating land use and how indigenous habitation, modern development, and natural change shape and affect rock art is crucial to understanding.  This includes physical and material context, access and preservation, and perception and respect.

    Church Rock in Shasta County, California, is exemplary for two reasons. All of the above dynamics play a role in appreciating this extensive site.   Second, the historical documentation includes extensive ethnography, old-school on the ground recording, and 3D digital imaging. (Including access to the UC Davis KeckCAVE’s immersive visualization facility.)  I know of no site in Oregon with this range of documentation.

    Church Rock (CA-SHA-39) is more than a rock. It’s an areal distribution of hundreds of carvings on the surfaces of exposed bedrock near two streams managed as a two-acre “cultural resource protection area” by its owner the City Of Redding

    In remote areas I pay attention to fences, waterholes, dams, and reservoirs, roads, domestic grazing, hunting tracks and blinds, and power lines.  In suburban zones and fringes it’s housing, roads again, pipelines, and, of course… Golf courses! [1]

    This cultural “reserve” is downstream from a major private housing and golf course development.  Agreement with the development helps control access (Church Rock is not open to the public), foster respect, with an aim toward preservation.  (To view a satellite image of the golf links and the petroglyph bedrock is to time-travel. One wonders, how will this appear in the Future?)

    [1] In Cups, Circles, and Golf Links I consider petroglyphs within two golf course developments: Big Island Hawaii and Northumberland England.  

    Three recommended, well-illustrated references
    - Van Tilburg, Frank Bock, and A. J. Bock. 1987. The Church Rock Petroglyph Site: Field Documentation and Preliminary Analysis. Occasional Papers of the Redding Museum No. 4, 1987.

    - Millett, Marshall and Ritter, Eric. 2013. "The Church Rock Petroglyph Site: Function, Style, Digital Documentation, and 3D Visualization" in International Federation of Rock Art Organizations 2013 Proceedings, American Indian Rock Art Vol. 40:1017-1040.
    - Mary Gerbic. 2015. A Field Trip to Church Rock. In SCAN, Santa Cruz Archaeological Society, Winter-Spring 2015: 5-8.

    Images
    - Golf Green in the vicinity of Church Rock. Photo Douglas Beauchamp 2016
    - Viewing a high-resolution 3D scan of the Maidu Historic Trail and Site at the UC Davis KeckCAVE’s immersive visualization facility.  (This not Church Rock; it’s an example of how 3D imaging of the site can be used.)

  • 10000 Years Plus or Minus

    Tao produced the One.
    The One produced the two.
    The two produced the three.
    And the three produced the ten thousand things.
          - Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching: about 2500 years ago [1]

    10000 years in the future.  What language do you speak?  How do you shape symbols, markers?  Gaze back to the Present.  How do you witness terrain?  What animals and plants do you see? How does the sky appear? 

    10000 years ago, early Archaic.  You are walking, what do you see?  How do you signal. Gesture? Gaze forward to this Present.  How would you make a Universal Warning Sign? 

    10000 years give or take, a blip in geologic time. Yet, an elusive temporal imagining for an embodied human. What image/symbol/figuration endures, holds meaning? How to chart it, graph it, digitize it, mark it, so… we get it?  As we inquire, we wonder - does it matter?  The Ten Thousand Things.  The eternal proliferation.  Back to square One of The Tao.

    Nuclear waste doesn't go away.  These are not simple questions with easy answers. Indeed they may be deadly important.  When Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was in serious consideration as a permanent disposal and containment site for “high level radioactive waste” (1987-2011) [2], how to warn future (human?) beings of danger spurred a design competition. A Universal Warning Sign was essential one that would be understood 10,000 years into the future. [3]

    The graphic image above is one part of the submission by Yulia Hanansen

    The first image below is a submission by Southwest Missouri State University's Brandon Alms.
    With the 2nd image below, not part of the competition, I offer as a counterpoint: a compelling art poster (1995) by Jaune Quick-To-See Smith.  She says, "I chose rabbits as an art icon because there is a cultural universality to them throughout the world."

    The 3rd image: a competition graphic by Yulia Hanansen.
    The final image: Archaic Petroglyph, Southeast Oregon, photo Douglas Beauchamp. 

    Notes
    [1] Lao Tzu, The Way of Lao Tzu, Wing-Tsit Chan, trans.

    [2] Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository
    [3] Universal Warning Sign competition (2002) for Yucca Mountain. Universal Warning Sign: Yucca Mountain.  Stone: An Ecology of the Inhuman (2015), by Jeffrey Jerome Cohen, provides a concise overview about the 2002 Universal Warning Sign competition for Yucca Mountain.

  • Rock Paint Lake

    This collection of rock paintings from Lake County, Oregon, represent a variety of places, designs, and expressions. In most examples some of the context is shown, then a close-up.  All the close-up painted images have some digital color enhancement.  This abstracts and distorts their appearance. Yet it may open a better understanding of the original painting.

    OK, this is about as technical as I will get.  If you simply wish to enjoy the pictures, click Rock Paint Lake and take look. 

    I use Aperture* to adjust because I can maintain some sense of the natural stone.  However, two remarkable enhancement software tools are available and both can produce wonderful benefits. They are intended for paintings, though not all will be happy with the sometimes garish, contrasty colors. Nonetheless, they are frequently used as study tools and can be quite revealing, even delightfully shocking. I will welcome a comparison of the two.

    DStretch, the classic for PCs by Jon Harman, is now available as iDStretch for iPad and iPhone for $20.  www.dstretch.com/iDStretch/index.html

    LabStretch & LabStretch2, recent –free- offerings for iPad and iPhone from Rupestrian CyberServices, was developed by Robert Mark & Evelyn Billowww.rupestrian.com/labstretch.html

    I now use the iPhone 6s for all photos in "normal" distance and find the results excellent. iPhone zoom photos are not useful**.  So, now I will use the light-weight ultra-zoom Canon SX60; sensor is small, but with RAW and JPEG capability. (All the photos on this album are with a Nikon D5100.)

    * A note on Aperture. Apple has ceased further development though v. 3.6 works fine.  I am switching for simplicity to Apple OS’s newer PHOTOS and work on an iMac. If you love full-frame DSLRs and Photoshop my choices will not work for you. But for excellent results for online networking with some print capability, iPhone and PHOTOS is nicely integrated. (** iPhone 7 promises to go even further toward DLSR/zoom capabilities.) 

    Click this deep-shadow image to see photos.

  • TEN 2015

    A selection of 10 favorites from the year 2015. Link: Ten Album

    Image below is unlike any I’ve seen.  Deep, dark, old - a figure is suggested. The intent of the carver, the purpose of the image, feels ever-elusive.  So be it… as the year bows out with the grace of unknowing.  Peace.

  • Sharp the Dark. Quick the Light.

    Let the snake wait under
    his weed
    and the writing
    be of words, slow and quick, sharp
    to strike, quiet to wait,
    sleepless.
    -- through metaphor to reconcile
    the people and the stones.
    Compose. (No ideas
    but in things) Invent!
    Saxifrage is my flower that splits
    the rocks.
    - William Carlos Williams, A Sort of a Song*

    In petroglyphs circles may weave in and out and through gatherings of elements - vague figures, abstract suggestions, ever-abiding.  Images loosely pecked or abraded drift, layering with time, softening, fading, weathering.  Change whispers its spiraling tale, with it some of what we do not yet know floats before us.

    Solstice. Full Moon. Seasonal Rounds.  Sharp sight of the Dark. Quick gift of the Light.
    Selected circling petroglyphs visited in 2015

    *Appreciation to Jarold Ramsey for leading me to this.

  • Faster than the eye can see

    Everything perdures by ceaselessly generating fresh variants of itself, even apparently inanimate objects move faster than the eye can see. Kaja Silverman {1]

    The stone, the lichens, the images, indeed, the light slip by faster than I can see.  With this basalt rim in Lake County, instances of impressions shifting before my eyes. 

    I do not recognize the place in these fleeting moments as much as the place and its beings recognize me. Still, I will seek to interpret through the camera and later through editing, inevitably inhering a "grand capacity for deliberately forgetting."

    Photos:  https://plus.google.com/+DouglasBeauchamp

    Or:  Impressions 

    [1] Silverman’s consideration of Paul Valéry, drawing from his "Introduction to the Method of Leonardo," continues:  "The armchair decays in its place, the table asserts itself so fast that it is motionless, and the curtains flow endlessly away,” Valéry writes in an important passage.  The only way we are able to regain our "control" in the "midst of the moving bodies, the circulation of their contours, the jumble of knots, the paths, the falls, the whirlpools, [and] the confusion of velocities" is by resorting to our "grand capacity for deliberately forgetting." Kaja Silverman in Flesh of My Flesh (2009, p.35).

  • Black Glyph

    Beautiful baffling petroglyph.  Black. Appears as natural aging of the stone, not paint. With dots, an old glyph.  In the second of the three images here, it is easy to see two ochre paint markings, enhancing dimensions of this place.
    Hart Plateau, Lake County, Douglas Beauchamp 2014.

  • She Who Watches the Industrial Complex Corridor

    A wild disjunction reigns at an overview of what was the Columbia River.  She Who Watches gazes eastward over still backwaters, Lake Celilo formed by The Dalles Dam.   She peers over corridors of modernist motion along with a myriad of other spirit beings, images in stone painted and inscribed by the indigenous peoples of the mid-Columbia region. The high-water survivors of other innumerable images inundated in the 1950s.

    Coal trains regularly rock by with urgency, China awaiting delivery of raw power.  On the lake,  pushed and shoved, barges bear freighted goods up and down. On the hills and spanning canyons march power-towers with drooping wires and wheeling wind turbines.  Across the waters, Interstate 84 cuts through basalt cliffs, connecting all points west and east, Portland to Idaho, following the rough path of the old Oregon Trail. 

    We ask:  What and how now does She watch?  Do we see with her?  Or are we content to look into her face, her masking, her patience. And with due respect for her presence, seek a kind of knowing.

    Images:  [Link]

  • Character of the place

    The place can make us feel deeply at home. Yet it is not our 'own' . Its significance does not originate in an order created by us. What the place means to us does not depend on our activities - and their meanings. This fact strikes us when we attempt to define the meaning of the place by words - and these words escape us. When we feel that the place is near – it withdraws. The place rests in its own withdrawal.  Dag T. Andersson [1]

    High Lakes lava lands of eastern Lake County. East of the Warner Valley, west of Guano Valley, south of Poker Jim Ridge, north of the Sheldon Antelope Refuge on the Nevada line. And here I stand and walk in a space that runs to horizons.  Near places resting in withdrawal.  Late September 2015. 

    The makers of petroglyphs found rims, boulders, smooth surfaces often facing morning sun. Carved, pecked, abraded, or scratched images as a single act or layered over uncountable centuries interplay within the hard basalt, the earth. Perhaps functional or practical, yet more often appearing imbued with spirit world. 

    Beginning a few decades ago ranchers and federal agencies brought laborers and their tools -- bulldozers and backhoes -- to carve rough tracks, dig waterholes, push up berms for reservoirs. 

    In common, these human activities circle near water, attentive to seasons.   Meaning expressed in and through materials, the altered rocks, dust, dirt, wet and dry. Meaning now melding with the cycles and wrappings of nature.

    Album: Lake County East [Link]

    [1] Dag T. Andersson. Ontology of a space left over.  In Ruin Memories: Materialities, Aesthetics and the Archaeology of the Recent Past.  Bjørnar Olsen and Þóra Pétursdóttir, editors. Routledge, 2014.

  • Claimings, Reclaimings: Tule Lake

    Tule Lake.  A place of conflict, beauty, contradiction, extraction, preservation, jurisdiction, nurturance, and striking geologic presence.  Visiting Petroglyph Point or one of few caves with paintings, both part of the Lava Beds National Monument, is accessible and rewarding.  However, if one becomes curious about these places and spaces, the peoples and animals come and gone and come again, the winds of history, prehistory, planning, and accident quickly buffet, even shred, assumptions.

    The Rock Art. There are many studies with various facts, beliefs, and conjectures, which may be dated, fragmentary, or not well-grounded. We are reminded all interpretation risks concocting explanations by aligning selective facts or suppositions.  What to do?  Go out and look around!

    Meanwhile, for background study I suggest starting with the informed work of Robert David. His 2012 dissertation offers a fairly comprehensive bibliography related to Klamath Basin rock art with many references directly applicable to the Tule Lake area. Online, open access: The Landscape of Klamath Basin Rock Art (2012).

    Further:  Julian Steward (1929 & 1937), Robert Heizer & C. William Clewlow Jr (1973), B.K. Swartz Jr.  (1978), Helen Crotty (1979 & 1981), Georgia Lee & William Hyder (various 1980s & 1990s), James Keyser et al. (2006). For Fern Cave, internet searches offer a range of information, though many studies are not public. 

    The Place. Two books to open doors.
    Balancing Water: Restoring the Klamath Basin. 2000. Tupper Ansel Blake, Madeleine Graham Blake, and William Kittredge.

    Hell with the fire out: a history of the Modoc War. 1997. Arthur Quinn.

    Two photo pages:  Petroglyphs/Tule Lake.  Rock Paintings/Lava Beds 

  • Diagrams: Finding out in the Oregon desert

    Carl Jung relates the story, in a larger context concerning transformation, of an old man, reputed to be a sorcerer, who sought refuge in a cave, “seeking to know what it was that he did not know, but which, he felt certain, was always happening. After meditating for a very long time on that which is beyond meditation, he saw no other way of escape from his predicament than to take a piece of red chalk and draw all kinds of diagrams on the walls of his cave, in order to find out what that which he did not know might look like. After many attempts he hit on the circle. ‘That’s right,’ he felt, ‘and now for a quadrangle inside it!’ - which made it better still.” [1] 

    Is it fair to invoke Jung and Euro-tales when considering indigenous rock paintings, red ochre on black desert basalts in the Great Basin? It is a lingering question I will always consider. Yet Jung’s concept of the underlying structure of human consciousness – and the unconscious – offers for me one avenue to deeper understanding of predicament: to find out what that which he did not know might look like.

    To the degree the human mind is a part of a naturalistic, animated universe, the stone, the ochre, the image reveal presence immemorial through the mind and hand of the painter.

    [1] Selected from Concerning Rebirth (1950) in C. G. Jung, The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Bollingen, Princeton University Press, 1959.  p.129 para 233.

    Diagrams: Finding out in the Oregon desert

  • Making Tracks, Leaving Traces

    Track. Trace. Trait. These words originate from the Latin tractus: drawing, dragging, drafting, pulling. They all speak to marks resulting from an action. A pen on paper, a foot on sand, a hoof on mud. Stone on stone. With petroglyphs a doubling results. The petroglyph itself marking stone. The image resembling an animal or human print or track in real space. Further, the modern photograph digitally traces the reflected light. The traits of the image store as bits subject to recall by the computer, displayed as something recognizable. Traces.

    Petroglyph images as tracks and traces, though infrequent among the thousands of mostly abstract glyphs in the northwestern Great Basin, stand out due to their resonance as resemblance. We recognize. We have an idea, a memory, a feeling. We say it looks like. We may ascribe values. Look from placement to place. We will circle back to our own hands. Our feet. Our digital self.

    Most of these petroglyphs are thousands years old. Embedded, intentional, and crafted markings, they embody as signs, signals, symbols, icons, or metaphors. Their appearances alter through time. Though powerful markers, for us they now lack social or cultural context, eluding meaning while producing a tension, an ambiguity of presence and absence of th human and the animal we know has been here, gone there.

    The thinking and writing of David Summers, Bruno Latour, and Michel Serres has challenged my understanding. Of course they are no way liable for the track I have followed! 

    Album: Tracks & Traces Petroglyphs

  • Where are the Pronghorn?

    Pia wantsipe toowenene’ iten
    Pia wantsipe toowenene’ iten
    Pennan tapai tatawento toowenene’ ite

    The big antelope buck-pe slowly grazing while standing
    The big antelope buck-pe slowly grazing while standing
    Sun beams flashing, hitting him while he stands and grazes. 

    "Antelope Song," a Western Shoshone round dance song [1]

    Pronghorns need to drink water every day.  During summer it is often several times a day.  Hunters know this. When hunting season opens in SE Oregon in August, many hunters will set up near waterholes.  And, camouflaged, wait behind rock blinds, brush, or on a low rim - if close enough to the water or a passage to water.  Scopes and high-powered rifles allow flexibility on what “close” means. About 2500 pronghorn antelope hunting tags are distributed by lottery by ODFW each year.  This is about 10% of Oregon’s estimated pronghorn population of 25,000. [2] 

    Indigenous peoples hunted and killed pronghorn for at least 10,000 years as testified by the remains in some archaeological excavations.  “Procuring” has been documented from the early Holocene in SE Oregon. [3]  Evidence in the Northern Great Basin shows communal hunts, usually with traps at drive sites with barriers/fences of stone, juniper, or brush, was an important method of capture and killing. [4} 

    Petroglyphs resembling pronghorn antelope are very rare in the rock art of SE Oregon, given the hundreds of rock art sites and the tens of thousand of images.  Bighorn sheep motifs are more recognizable and more frequent, but they are not common as they are in some other parts the Great Basin and in the Southwest. 

    Selected Pronghorn Petroglyphs in Lake County, Oregon 

    [1]  Transcribed and translated by Beverly Crum, ca. 1975. In Steven J. Crum, 1999. “Julian Steward’s Vision of the Great Basin: A Critique and Response." In Julian Steward and the Great Basin: The Making of an Anthropologist.  

    [2] Currently about 2000 pronghorn summer on the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge in Lake County. About 60 bow and rifle hunting tags issued annually for the Refuge.

    2015 is the centenary of a low point for pronghorn.  In 1915 in the western U.S. about 13,000 remained of the estimated 35 million roaming a century earlier.  Some experts were resigned to the species’ eventual extinction due to killing, grazing, and partitioning of open lands.

    [3] Two examples of studies including references to pronghorn remains in early Holocene archaeological contexts:
    - A Flaked Stone Crescent from a Stratified, Radiocarbon-Dated Site in the Northern Great Basin. Geoffrey M. Smith, et al. North American Archaeologist July 2014 vol. 35 no. 3 257-276.
    - Early and Middle Holocene Archaeology of the Northern Great Basin. 2004. Edited by D. L. Jenkins, T. J. Connolly, and C. M. Aikens, University of Oregon Anthropological Papers 62.

    [4] About 120 hunting features and kill locales are now documented in Nevada and Eastern California. See studies and reviews of archaeological research and ethnography in the Great Basin by Brooke S. Arkush, Brian Hockett, and Patrick M. Lubinski.

  • Lake Abert: Spirits as Witness

    A place is deeper than the sum of its aspects.  My thought as I travel the 15 miles of US Highway 395 curving along the east shore of Lake Abert. 

    The indigenous peoples who inhabited the lakeshore adjusted the location of their dwellings as the lake expanse fluctuated over many millennia. Rick Pettigrew’s archaeological scoping reveals dynamic cultural change. He analyzes the surface archaeology – rock features and rock art - demonstrating sequential occupations linked with lake elevations. [1] 

    Today people – and birds – find the lakeshore uninhabitable. 

    “Under Oregon law, Lake Abert has no legal right to any water at all.”

    In 2014 for the first time is 80 years Lake Abert is - completely dried. [2a & 2b] A migration stopover for millions of birds that rely on the brine shrimp and alkali flies, the lake offered nothing.  Significant among many converging factors are the human manipulations and extractions of the Chewaucan River, the terminal lake’s only steady replenishment. 

    Beyond the reality of the region’s multi-year drought, is the strange story of the aptly-named River’s End Ranch, or perhaps better: Lake’s End Ranch.  Not only is the private ranch reservoir thick with 25 years of land- and water-use conflicts, the property owner’s dam-and-dike building in the 1990s ignored protection requirements and severely disturbed ancestral remains linked to four recognized tribes. [3]

    This year, 2015, looks to be the same to me during my mid-July visit to a few of the dozens of rock art sites distributed on the Lake’s east shore. [4]  Spirits emerge as witness as they have since time immemorial. And as they will when humans abandon the arid basin-and-range valleys as global heating accelerates.  [5]  

    [1]  Pettigrew, Richard M.  Archaeological investigations on the east shore of Lake Abert, Lake County, Oregon. Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, 1985. 

    [2a] Lake Abert Dries Up, a 15-minute video from Oregon Field Guide (OBP), April 2014. This webpage also includes links to some source documents.

    [2b] Oregon’s only saltwater lake is disappearing, and scientists don't know why.”  July 3 2014. Oregonlive.

    [3] Klamath Tribe near remedies over disturbed ancestral remains.”  May 2000. Indian Country Today Media Network. (Note: the Tribes concluded an agreement in late 2001.)

    [4] East Lake Abert Archeological District, encompassing 6000 acres, was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.   This greatly expanded the 1974 nine-acre “Abert Lake Petroglyphs” NRHP listing. 

    [5] Warming Pushes Western U.S. Toward Driest Period in 1,000 Years

    Photos: Spirits as Witness