BLOG: To Become Visible

  • Faster than the eye can see

    Everything perdures by ceaselessly generating fresh variants of itself, even apparently inanimate objects move faster than the eye can see. Kaja Silverman {1]

    The stone, the lichens, the images, indeed, the light slip by faster than I can see.  With this basalt rim in Lake County, instances of impressions shifting before my eyes. 

    I do not recognize the place in these fleeting moments as much as the place and its beings recognize me. Still, I will seek to interpret through the camera and later through editing, inevitably inhering a "grand capacity for deliberately forgetting."


    Or:  Impressions 

    [1] Silverman’s consideration of Paul Valéry, drawing from his "Introduction to the Method of Leonardo," continues:  "The armchair decays in its place, the table asserts itself so fast that it is motionless, and the curtains flow endlessly away,” Valéry writes in an important passage.  The only way we are able to regain our "control" in the "midst of the moving bodies, the circulation of their contours, the jumble of knots, the paths, the falls, the whirlpools, [and] the confusion of velocities" is by resorting to our "grand capacity for deliberately forgetting." Kaja Silverman in Flesh of My Flesh (2009, p.35).

  • Black Glyph

    Beautiful baffling petroglyph.  Black. Appears as natural aging of the stone, not paint. With dots, an old glyph.  In the second of the three images here, it is easy to see two ochre paint markings, enhancing dimensions of this place.
    Hart Plateau, Lake County, Douglas Beauchamp 2014.

  • She Who Watches the Industrial Complex Corridor

    A wild disjunction reigns at an overview of what was the Columbia River.  She Who Watches gazes eastward over still backwaters, Lake Celilo formed by The Dalles Dam.   She peers over corridors of modernist motion along with a myriad of other spirit beings, images in stone painted and inscribed by the indigenous peoples of the mid-Columbia region. The high-water survivors of other innumerable images inundated in the 1950s.

    Coal trains regularly rock by with urgency, China awaiting delivery of raw power.  On the lake,  pushed and shoved, barges bear freighted goods up and down. On the hills and spanning canyons march power-towers with drooping wires and wheeling wind turbines.  Across the waters, Interstate 84 cuts through basalt cliffs, connecting all points west and east, Portland to Idaho, following the rough path of the old Oregon Trail. 

    We ask:  What and how now does She watch?  Do we see with her?  Or are we content to look into her face, her masking, her patience. And with due respect for her presence, seek a kind of knowing.

    Images:  [Link]

  • Character of the place

    The place can make us feel deeply at home. Yet it is not our 'own' . Its significance does not originate in an order created by us. What the place means to us does not depend on our activities - and their meanings. This fact strikes us when we attempt to define the meaning of the place by words - and these words escape us. When we feel that the place is near – it withdraws. The place rests in its own withdrawal.  Dag T. Andersson [1]

    High Lakes lava lands of eastern Lake County. East of the Warner Valley, west of Guano Valley, south of Poker Jim Ridge, north of the Sheldon Antelope Refuge on the Nevada line. And here I stand and walk in a space that runs to horizons.  Near places resting in withdrawal.  Late September 2015. 

    The makers of petroglyphs found rims, boulders, smooth surfaces often facing morning sun. Carved, pecked, abraded, or scratched images as a single act or layered over uncountable centuries interplay within the hard basalt, the earth. Perhaps functional or practical, yet more often appearing imbued with spirit world. 

    Beginning a few decades ago ranchers and federal agencies brought laborers and their tools -- bulldozers and backhoes -- to carve rough tracks, dig waterholes, push up berms for reservoirs. 

    In common, these human activities circle near water, attentive to seasons.   Meaning expressed in and through materials, the altered rocks, dust, dirt, wet and dry. Meaning now melding with the cycles and wrappings of nature.

    Album: Lake County East [Link]

    [1] Dag T. Andersson. Ontology of a space left over.  In Ruin Memories: Materialities, Aesthetics and the Archaeology of the Recent Past.  Bjørnar Olsen and Þóra Pétursdóttir, editors. Routledge, 2014.

  • Claimings, Reclaimings: Tule Lake

    Tule Lake.  A place of conflict, beauty, contradiction, extraction, preservation, jurisdiction, nurturance, and striking geologic presence.  Visiting Petroglyph Point or one of few caves with paintings, both part of the Lava Beds National Monument, is accessible and rewarding.  However, if one becomes curious about these places and spaces, the peoples and animals come and gone and come again, the winds of history, prehistory, planning, and accident quickly buffet, even shred, assumptions.

    The Rock Art. There are many studies with various facts, beliefs, and conjectures, which may be dated, fragmentary, or not well-grounded. We are reminded all interpretation risks concocting explanations by aligning selective facts or suppositions.  What to do?  Go out and look around!

    Meanwhile, for background study I suggest starting with the informed work of Robert David. His 2012 dissertation offers a fairly comprehensive bibliography related to Klamath Basin rock art with many references directly applicable to the Tule Lake area. Online, open access: The Landscape of Klamath Basin Rock Art (2012).

    Further:  Julian Steward (1929 & 1937), Robert Heizer & C. William Clewlow Jr (1973), B.K. Swartz Jr.  (1978), Helen Crotty (1979 & 1981), Georgia Lee & William Hyder (various 1980s & 1990s), James Keyser et al. (2006). For Fern Cave, internet searches offer a range of information, though many studies are not public. 

    The Place. Two books to open doors.
    Balancing Water: Restoring the Klamath Basin. 2000. Tupper Ansel Blake, Madeleine Graham Blake, and William Kittredge.

    Hell with the fire out: a history of the Modoc War. 1997. Arthur Quinn.

    Two photo pages:  Petroglyphs/Tule Lake.  Rock Paintings/Lava Beds 

  • Diagrams: Finding out in the Oregon desert

    Carl Jung relates the story, in a larger context concerning transformation, of an old man, reputed to be a sorcerer, who sought refuge in a cave, “seeking to know what it was that he did not know, but which, he felt certain, was always happening. After meditating for a very long time on that which is beyond meditation, he saw no other way of escape from his predicament than to take a piece of red chalk and draw all kinds of diagrams on the walls of his cave, in order to find out what that which he did not know might look like. After many attempts he hit on the circle. ‘That’s right,’ he felt, ‘and now for a quadrangle inside it!’ - which made it better still.” [1] 

    Is it fair to invoke Jung and Euro-tales when considering indigenous rock paintings, red ochre on black desert basalts in the Great Basin? It is a lingering question I will always consider. Yet Jung’s concept of the underlying structure of human consciousness – and the unconscious – offers for me one avenue to deeper understanding of predicament: to find out what that which he did not know might look like.

    To the degree the human mind is a part of a naturalistic, animated universe, the stone, the ochre, the image reveal presence immemorial through the mind and hand of the painter.

    [1] Selected from Concerning Rebirth (1950) in C. G. Jung, The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Bollingen, Princeton University Press, 1959.  p.129 para 233.

    Diagrams: Finding out in the Oregon desert

  • Making Tracks, Leaving Traces

    Track. Trace. Trait. These words originate from the Latin tractus: drawing, dragging, drafting, pulling. They all speak to marks resulting from an action. A pen on paper, a foot on sand, a hoof on mud. Stone on stone. With petroglyphs a doubling results. The petroglyph itself marking stone. The image resembling an animal or human print or track in real space. Further, the modern photograph digitally traces the reflected light. The traits of the image store as bits subject to recall by the computer, displayed as something recognizable. Traces.

    Petroglyph images as tracks and traces, though infrequent among the thousands of mostly abstract glyphs in the northwestern Great Basin, stand out due to their resonance as resemblance. We recognize. We have an idea, a memory, a feeling. We say it looks like. We may ascribe values. Look from placement to place. We will circle back to our own hands. Our feet. Our digital self.

    Most of these petroglyphs are thousands years old. Embedded, intentional, and crafted markings, they embody as signs, signals, symbols, icons, or metaphors. Their appearances alter through time. Though powerful markers, for us they now lack social or cultural context, eluding meaning while producing a tension, an ambiguity of presence and absence of th human and the animal we know has been here, gone there.

    The thinking and writing of David Summers, Bruno Latour, and Michel Serres has challenged my understanding. Of course they are no way liable for the track I have followed! 

    Album: Tracks & Traces Petroglyphs

  • Where are the Pronghorn?

    Pia wantsipe toowenene’ iten
    Pia wantsipe toowenene’ iten
    Pennan tapai tatawento toowenene’ ite

    The big antelope buck-pe slowly grazing while standing
    The big antelope buck-pe slowly grazing while standing
    Sun beams flashing, hitting him while he stands and grazes. 

    "Antelope Song," a Western Shoshone round dance song [1]

    Pronghorns need to drink water every day.  During summer it is often several times a day.  Hunters know this. When hunting season opens in SE Oregon in August, many hunters will set up near waterholes.  And, camouflaged, wait behind rock blinds, brush, or on a low rim - if close enough to the water or a passage to water.  Scopes and high-powered rifles allow flexibility on what “close” means. About 2500 pronghorn antelope hunting tags are distributed by lottery by ODFW each year.  This is about 10% of Oregon’s estimated pronghorn population of 25,000. [2] 

    Indigenous peoples hunted and killed pronghorn for at least 10,000 years as testified by the remains in some archaeological excavations.  “Procuring” has been documented from the early Holocene in SE Oregon. [3]  Evidence in the Northern Great Basin shows communal hunts, usually with traps at drive sites with barriers/fences of stone, juniper, or brush, was an important method of capture and killing. [4} 

    Petroglyphs resembling pronghorn antelope are very rare in the rock art of SE Oregon, given the hundreds of rock art sites and the tens of thousand of images.  Bighorn sheep motifs are more recognizable and more frequent, but they are not common as they are in some other parts the Great Basin and in the Southwest. 

    Selected Pronghorn Petroglyphs in Lake County, Oregon 

    [1]  Transcribed and translated by Beverly Crum, ca. 1975. In Steven J. Crum, 1999. “Julian Steward’s Vision of the Great Basin: A Critique and Response." In Julian Steward and the Great Basin: The Making of an Anthropologist.  

    [2] Currently about 2000 pronghorn summer on the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge in Lake County. About 60 bow and rifle hunting tags issued annually for the Refuge.

    2015 is the centenary of a low point for pronghorn.  In 1915 in the western U.S. about 13,000 remained of the estimated 35 million roaming a century earlier.  Some experts were resigned to the species’ eventual extinction due to killing, grazing, and partitioning of open lands.

    [3] Two examples of studies including references to pronghorn remains in early Holocene archaeological contexts:
    - A Flaked Stone Crescent from a Stratified, Radiocarbon-Dated Site in the Northern Great Basin. Geoffrey M. Smith, et al. North American Archaeologist July 2014 vol. 35 no. 3 257-276.
    - Early and Middle Holocene Archaeology of the Northern Great Basin. 2004. Edited by D. L. Jenkins, T. J. Connolly, and C. M. Aikens, University of Oregon Anthropological Papers 62.

    [4] About 120 hunting features and kill locales are now documented in Nevada and Eastern California. See studies and reviews of archaeological research and ethnography in the Great Basin by Brooke S. Arkush, Brian Hockett, and Patrick M. Lubinski.

  • Lake Abert: Spirits as Witness

    A place is deeper than the sum of its aspects.  My thought as I travel the 15 miles of US Highway 395 curving along the east shore of Lake Abert. 

    The indigenous peoples who inhabited the lakeshore adjusted the location of their dwellings as the lake expanse fluctuated over many millennia. Rick Pettigrew’s archaeological scoping reveals dynamic cultural change. He analyzes the surface archaeology – rock features and rock art - demonstrating sequential occupations linked with lake elevations. [1] 

    Today people – and birds – find the lakeshore uninhabitable. 

    “Under Oregon law, Lake Abert has no legal right to any water at all.”

    In 2014 for the first time is 80 years Lake Abert is - completely dried. [2a & 2b] A migration stopover for millions of birds that rely on the brine shrimp and alkali flies, the lake offered nothing.  Significant among many converging factors are the human manipulations and extractions of the Chewaucan River, the terminal lake’s only steady replenishment. 

    Beyond the reality of the region’s multi-year drought, is the strange story of the aptly-named River’s End Ranch, or perhaps better: Lake’s End Ranch.  Not only is the private ranch reservoir thick with 25 years of land- and water-use conflicts, the property owner’s dam-and-dike building in the 1990s ignored protection requirements and severely disturbed ancestral remains linked to four recognized tribes. [3]

    This year, 2015, looks to be the same to me during my mid-July visit to a few of the dozens of rock art sites distributed on the Lake’s east shore. [4]  Spirits emerge as witness as they have since time immemorial. And as they will when humans abandon the arid basin-and-range valleys as global heating accelerates.  [5]  

    [1]  Pettigrew, Richard M.  Archaeological investigations on the east shore of Lake Abert, Lake County, Oregon. Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, 1985. 

    [2a] Lake Abert Dries Up, a 15-minute video from Oregon Field Guide (OBP), April 2014. This webpage also includes links to some source documents.

    [2b] Oregon’s only saltwater lake is disappearing, and scientists don't know why.”  July 3 2014. Oregonlive.

    [3] Klamath Tribe near remedies over disturbed ancestral remains.”  May 2000. Indian Country Today Media Network. (Note: the Tribes concluded an agreement in late 2001.)

    [4] East Lake Abert Archeological District, encompassing 6000 acres, was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.   This greatly expanded the 1974 nine-acre “Abert Lake Petroglyphs” NRHP listing. 

    [5] Warming Pushes Western U.S. Toward Driest Period in 1,000 Years

    Photos: Spirits as Witness

  • Ambiguities in Forms and Realities

    Something can be whole only by having a hole.  Bernhard Siegert*

    Two red images painted on light stone. Or a single image – the animal-like figure and the circle-form, each attending to the other. Circle unstable, perhaps a sphere. Or hole?  If so, emergence, entrance, or in-between?  Animal, shifting into spirit? Looking, the fading, slowly dissolving, oscillating painting provokes in me a presence compressing time into now.

    Stepping back expands the physical presence of the placement, the place, the space. To the left on the dark basalt petroglyphs appear - pecked markings by indigenous peoples, perhaps others, arriving, departing before or after the painter of animal/circle-spirit/sphere. Did each artist-maker look and wonder at those markings, recognize intent and being? Together the images, the stone, the sky expanse, and the distant valley all conspire to infuse the place with story, a changing narrative as yet becoming.

    Other photos: A Rock Painting

    * From "Material World," Bernhard Siegert in conversation with Geoffrey Winthrop-Young. Artforum, Summer 2015, 324-333.
    Note: Image below is digitally enhanced to better show the painting’s forms.

  • Places Of The Actual

    Rock art photos, mine included, tend to frame a timeless presence.  Sure, most petroglyphs have been in place for centuries, many for millennia.  The stone itself has changed in ways simultaneously revealing and obscuring a subtle sense of time, altering the sense of the original markings and layerings. A latent beauty. Yet the surround - lands and waters, plants and animals - are often heavily disrupted, most profoundly in the recent 150 years.  A blip, rapidly in flux. Profound change impinged, more forthcoming. 

    These cultural and aspirational changes foster a measure of economic success – logging, damming, grazing, draining, channeling, pumping, piping, powering.   Most anyone who's lived in or traveled through this country can see and knows the score.  Most profound to me is the killings, direct or indirect. For example, native mammals fearfully classed as Predators or Competitors – coyote, cougar, bear, rabbit, prairie dog, for example, are trapped, shot, poisoned with relentless abandon. Plants too are attacked. Most visible these days in the arid west are the acres upon acres of clear-cut Western Juniper, including many mature trees in place before arrival of the Euroamerican culture in the 1800s. Sometimes the logic of cut lands demands a burning, seared to the ground.  Rock art as witness. 

    This collection of 24 photos from a trip this month in Three Corners – the border intersection of Oregon-California-Nevada - navigates places of the actual as a way of looking, of being present in old time and new.

  • The Eye is the First Circle

    “The eye is the first circle,” Emerson writes. “The horizon which it forms is the second; and throughout nature this primary figure is repeated without end," with each new thought composing a new circle, wider than and containing those coming before it. Just as the nucleus is at the center of the atom, with each larger orbit whirling concentrically around it, including and surpassing in complexity and capacity the smaller one preceding, so the eye of a person, like a pebble dropped into a pond, emanates outward its interpretive horizons, the most powerful visions proving the most potent stones, generating strong and multitudinous ripples.

    - Eric G. Wilson, from Keep It Fake: Inventing the Authentic Life (2015)

    Related June 2015 photos:  Water Rock Rim

  • To create a sensible reality

    In every ritual operation, the seeking after a specific end is never but one amongst a number of its operators’ motives: these motives derive from the whole of reality, its religious and sensible (aesthetic) sides alike. In every case they imply what has always been art’s purpose: to create a sensible reality whereby the ordinary world is modified in response to the desire for the extraordinary, for the marvellous, a desire implicit in the human being’s essence. Georges Bataille, Lascaux or the Birth of Art (1955). 

    Sensible Reality: One Place

  • Encountering A Petroglyph Place

    To recognize leads to representation of what is already known. To encounter fosters new experience.  According to Simon O’Sullivan, encounter challenges our typical ways of being in the world.  Encounter “produces a cut, a crack.” This “rupturing” is also, in the same creative moment, an affirmation. This conjunction is “a way of seeing and thinking this world differently.”[1]  With gratitude and without need of explanation or interpretation, I will add.

    [1] Simon O’Sullivan.  2006.  Art encounters Deleuze and Guattari: thought beyond representation. Palgrave Macmillan. At the book’s outset, O’Sullivan cites Deleuze: Something in the world forces us to think. This something is an object not of recognition but of a fundamental encounter(In Deleuze G. 1994. Difference and Repetition. Trans. P. Patton.)

    Encountering A Petroglyph Place

  • Charged with the rush of time: Michael Heizer at Gagosian

    When a thing is seen through the consciousness of temporality, it is changed into something that is nothing. This all-engulfing sense provides the mental ground for the object, so that it ceases being a mere object and becomes art. The object gets to be less and less but exists as something clearer. Every object, if it is art, is charged with the rush of time even though it is static, but all this depends on the viewer.  Robert Smithson, 1968, from “A Sedimentation of the Mind: Earth Projects.”

    Michael Heizer’s current exhibit “Altars” at Gagosian New York includes “negative wall sculptures featuring metamorphic and igneous rocks.”  Heizer, son of renowned California archaeologist Robert Heizer, is best known for his massive landscape modifications - “land artworks.” Along with Robert Smithson and a few others he transformed how we modernists encounter landscape. These interventions often were/are of huge scale and scope.  Or, as Heizer reminds us: Size is real. Scale is imagined size.

    Spectacularly sized and imagined, Heizer’s Levitated Mass moved across California in 2012 to be permanently installed at Los Angeles County Museum of Art: See rockartoregon post January 31, 2014:  Freeing The Rocks: Four Potentials

    Michael Heizer.  Potato Chip, 2015.  18-ton granite rock in stell (sic) frame. 172×106 ¾’×92 inches.  Photo by Rob McKeever courtesy the Gagosian website

  • Meanders and Dams: Lost in Modoc country

    Between the limited volume of water stored in Clear Lake Reservoir, the low inflow forecast, and estimated evaporation and seepage rates, Reclamation cannot make discretionary releases from Clear Lake Reservoir during 2015. 
    - Bureau of Reclamation, April 2015

    A basin in the Modoc country of far northeast California gathers the inflowing water of Willow Creek from some million acres from the south and east. Prior to completion of the Clear Lake Reservoir Dam in 1910 the water flow made a sweeping turn through a lake called Tchápsxo by the Modoc.  Magically it became the beginning of Lost River. The river crossed north into Oregon, undulated northerly and westerly for a hundred miles, and eventually flowed into Tule Lake as that basin’s major replenisher. Today, for management purposes over a million acres of Modoc County is known as the Upper Lost River Watershed, a California segment of the Klamath Project.

    Rock art of the Upper Lost River is not well-documented or well-understood. In this extreme drought year, I wonder does rock art bear on the future of  productivity and well-being –even survival– of the people, animals, and plants of Modoc, Siskiyou, and Klamath counties? Directly, no, it does not. Yet, as a sideways reminder of time and change, seems to me it may. Walking the canyons, standing at the dam, I witness meanderings, a profound circle of season, and the vast cycles of this expansive lava plateau. Feeling time returning in curves immemorial. As with all the clear lakes and lost rivers of our journeys, we ask will it always be so?

    Some Petroglyphs of Upper Lost River

    [1] 2015 Annual Operations Plan, Klamath Project, Bureau of Reclamation, April 2015, p.3

    Note. The immediate Clear Lake area holds a tense and painful historical legacy.  Modoc villages for centuries until the mid-1800s. The Applegate Trail crossed to the north in the mid 1800s.  Modoc native peoples relocated to the Klamath Reservation in 1864. The last days of the Modoc War in 1873.  Carr’s ranch and walls held area, 1870s-1890s.  Diversions of Lost River from the 1880s to the dam completion in 1910.   President T. Roosevelt proclaimed the Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in 1911. Lost River sucker and the shortnose sucker listed as Endangered Species in 1988. Into the 21st century: increasing drought as symptom of global heating.

  • Crook Motif: Ever the More

    Last year I posted a consideration of the “Crook” motif as seen in Lake County, Oregon. [1]

    This simple and distinctive motif appears at times in association with other figures on panel and oft times as a “floating” figure absent any obvious referent.  Other than usually facing a water source.

    At their most concise, the abstracted form appears as a symbol:  a half circle arching upward with a brief extension on one side.  Perhaps it is better to not call them “crooks,” or hooks, or any name. 

    Recently I discovered paper by Bernard M. Jones, Jr [2], which to added new depth to my thinking about this form. I find his thoughtful investigation of power, or “powerscapes” as he proposes, quite provocative. Most of his examples include associations with anthropomorphs, as do the references I noted in my earlier post.  However, forms of the petroglyphs in the northern Great Basin vary wildly and generally depart from any anthro-association: Crook Motif: Expanded

    [1] By Crook or by Hook: Abstract petroglyph motifs in Lake County. Feb 18 2014

    [2] Bernard M. Jones, Jr. 2012. The Shaman's Crook: A Visual Metaphor Numinous Power in Rock Art. In Utah Rock Art Vol XXX, URARA.

    Look closely:  Two Crooks emerge, with dots and other figures - an old petroglyph as are most of rhe "floating" crooks in Lake County, Oregon

  • The Pit River Tribe vs. The U.S. and Calpine Corporation

    100 years ago this month, April 1915, the U.S. Reclamation Service issued a 200-page report on the Pit River Basin.  The purpose being “to assess the feasibility of constructing works for the full utilization of the waters of the river and its tributaries… for the highest public advantage.“ The Report makes no reference to native peoples or tribes. Among the considerations was a 25-mile aqueduct to enhance the river from Clear Lake, which flowed north as the (rechanneled) Lost River to the Klamath River.  This did not happen. [1]

    Last month, March 2015, the Pit River Tribe and their allies were in court to protect the Medicine Lake Highlands from geothermal destruction and desecration. The Pit River, Wintun, Karuk, Shasta and Modoc Nations hold the Medicine Lake Highlands sacred, and have used the region for healing, religious ceremonies and tribal gatherings for thousands of years. [2, 3].  Calpine Corporation,  a Fortune 500 company, was founded in San Jose, California, and has based in Houston, Texas, since 2009.

    Both aquifers contribute the Upper Sacramento Headwaters of California’s the Central Valley Project. [4]    Rock art is one of many testimonies to the continuous presence of indigenous peoples within the Pit River and the Modoc Plateau watersheds for many millennia. 

    [1] Report on the Pit River Basin. April 1915.  U.S. Reclamation Service Office, Portland Oregon.
    [2] Pit River Tribe Rallies to Protect Medicine Lake March 13 2015. by Dan Bacher.  An excellent and timely news article.
    [3] Central Valley Project per Wikipedia
    [4] Protect Medicine Lake website 

  • Free to be Wild. Again.

    Their survival means more than a wild animal among us.  Their survival, I am convinced, guarantees the tangible truth of our imaginations.  Ellen Meloy [1]

    In December, a group of Bighorn Sheep ran free in the Klamath River canyon after relocation and release by ODFW [2].

    Bighorns populated central and southeast Oregon’s mountains, rims, and scarps until arrival of euroamericans with domestic sheep herds (competition and disease) and an efficient passion for killing wild ungulates.  Given a very few decades, Bighorns were extinct in Oregon by the early 20th century.  In the 1950s Bighorns were re-introduced into the basalt rims of Hart Mountain Antelope Refuge in Lake County. [3]

    Petroglyphs lakeside west of Hart Mountain attest to the special place Bighorn Sheep held in thought and expression of indigenous peoples.  Petroglyphs appear on the capping basalt blocks tumbled from the high rims, the preferred terrain of the sheep.  These selected petroglyphs, from a rich and varied tradition, are probably late Holocene, the last 1000-1500 years.

    Bighorn Sheep petroglyphs at Hart Lake

    [1] Eating Stone: Imagination and the Loss of the Wild (2005).  Ellen Meloy’s journey with the spirit of Desert Bighorns inspires through adventure, patience, and humor infused with a deep caring. Highly recommended. -DB

    [2] ODFW release notice with video (2 minutes), December 2014:

    [3] 1983 Bighorn Sheep report (10 MB download) provides habitat analysis for SE Oregon:

    Coda. As noble as restoration has been, and as tenacious as these sheep can be, the new normal of extreme drought in SE Oregon may result someday in petroglyphs speaking to a dry and silent world devoid of most of the creatures we now treasure. -DB